The M23 rebellion was a conflict in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) that lasted from April 2012 to November 2013.
It was led by a group of former soldiers who had been integrated into the Congolese army following a peace agreement in 2009, but later defected and formed their own rebel group.
The group was named after the March 23, 2009 peace agreement that ended a previous conflict in the region.
The M23 rebels were primarily made up of ethnic Tutsis from the DRC, many of whom had previously been members of a different rebel group called the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP).
The CNDP had fought against the DRC government in a previous conflict and had signed the March 23, 2009 peace agreement, which provided for the integration of CNDP fighters into the Congolese army.
However, many of these fighters were unhappy with the terms of the agreement and felt that the government had not followed through on its promises.
In April 2012, a group of these former CNDP fighters, led by Bosco Ntaganda, announced the formation of the M23 rebel group.
They declared that they were withdrawing from the Congolese army and would fight against the government until their demands were met.
The M23 rebels quickly gained control of several towns in the eastern DRC and began to expand their territory.
The M23 rebellion was characterized by widespread human rights abuses, including the recruitment of child soldiers, the rape and murder of civilians, and the destruction of homes and infrastructure.
The conflict also displaced thousands of people and contributed to a humanitarian crisis in the region.
The M23 rebellion was eventually defeated by the Congolese army, with the help of a regional military force known as the Intervention Brigade.
In November 2013, the M23 rebels signed a peace agreement with the DRC government, agreeing to lay down their arms and integrate into the national army or civilian life.
However, despite the peace agreement, violence and instability have continued in the eastern DRC, and other rebel groups have emerged.
The root causes of the conflict, including political and economic marginalization, ethnic tensions, and the presence of valuable natural resources, have not been adequately addressed, and the DRC remains one of the poorest and most fragile states in the world.
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